Before you is a brief biography of Alexander I. The role of this emperor in the history of Russia is not simple, because he ascended the throne after the murder of his father, and became famous not only because he held the highest post in the state.
Read more about his life and activities in the article.
We recommend to pay attention to the brief biographies of great people. It is not only interesting, but also useful for the development of horizons and erudition.Emperor Alexander I Pavlovich
Childhood, nurture and education
December 12, 1777 the All-Russian Alexander Pavlovich Romanov, autocrat of All-Russia, was born in St. Petersburg. From early childhood, he instilled a love for various sciences and military affairs.
It is noteworthy that his grandmother, Catherine II, wanted to see her grandson Alexander on the throne, since she considered her own son Pavel not a very good candidate for governing the state.
And this is not surprising, since many of the character traits of Alexander were similar to those of Catherine, who is actively engaged in raising her grandson in Tsarskoye Selo.
From the very youth, Alexander I manifested outstanding mental abilities.
In life, he was a man of liberal views.
It should be noted that he was lazy for a long time to engage in serious activities that require perseverance and prolonged concentration.
September 17, 1793 the emperor married Elizabeth Alekseyevna. Some time later, he began serving in the Gatchina troops and already in 1796 he was promoted to colonel of the guard.
A year later, Alexander I became commander of the Metropolitan Division and carried out a number of other duties, and in 1798 he met in the Senate.
Alexander in the role of heir
Having received a good upbringing and education in his childhood, Alexander had his own views and ideas, which were fundamentally different from the ideology of his father, Paul.
Hot disputes and even quarrels often arose between the son and his parent.
March 12, 1801 in the biography of Alexander I there was a sharp turn. On this day, a Palace coup took place in St. Petersburg, in which Paul was killed, and Alexander I became emperor of Russia.
Alexander I reforms
At the very beginning of his reign, Alexander seriously took up political changes within the state. He signed the law on amnesty, thanks to which many free thinkers who were imprisoned during the reign of his father received freedom.
In many ways, the purpose of the autocrat was the desire to weaken the oppression of serfdom. So, in 1803, he issued a decree on free plowers. Now the landowners could set free their peasants together with their land estates.
A separate merit of Alexander I was the reform relating to the development of education. For example, Moscow State University received good funding, and later the famous Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum was inaugurated.
One of the closest assistants of Alexander I was Mikhail Speransky. It was he who developed the ministerial reform, according to which new ministries came to replace ineffective colleges. This was an important milestone in the biography of Alexander I.
In 1809 a bill was created on the separation of powers. However, given the fact that Alexander was afraid of grumbling from the aristocracy, he did not give this development project.
Some time later Speransky was removed from his post.
Alexandra's foreign policy
Under Alexander I, Russia joined the anti-French coalition. Over time, the situation changed, and the emperor personally met with Napoleon to build relationships.
They concluded the Tilsit peace between the countries, according to which neutrality was established between Russia and France.
This allowed the Russian Empire to annex Moldova and Finland to its territories, which ultimately happened.
However, in 1812, Bonaparte attacked Russia, as a result of which the Patriotic War began.
Despite the fact that the French managed to win many victories and reach Moscow, Bonaparte, who lost all of his resources and people, had to shamefully leave Russia.
During this period of his biography, during the overseas campaign, Alexander I personally led the army. He not only triumphantly entered Paris with his army, but also became a hero for the whole of Europe.Alexander I on horseback
A little later, at the Congress of Vienna, the fate of the entire continent was decided. For the rulers, a new division of Europe was evident. As a result of the diplomatic confrontation of the parties, Poland was annexed to Russia.
The last years of the biography of Alexander I were not as bright as before. At the end of his life, he, like his father, became very interested in mysticism, and then became seriously ill.
Alexander I died in Taganrog in 1825. Unfortunately, he did not leave behind any offspring, which was the reason for the famous Decembrist uprising.
As a result, Alexander I's younger brother, Nikolai, ascended the Russian throne.