Lenin's biography is one of the most interesting and mysterious among the biographies of world-famous politicians. After all, it was Lenin who was the main organizer of the October Revolution of 1917, which radically changed the history of not only Russia, but also of the world.
Vladimir Lenin wrote many works on Marxism, communism, socialism and political philosophy.
Some consider him the greatest revolutionary and reformer, while others are accused of serious crimes and called madman. So who is he, Vladimir Lenin, a genius or a villain?
In this article, we will highlight the most significant events in Lenin's biography, and try to understand why his activities still evoke radically opposite opinions and assessments.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov was born on April 10, 1870 in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk). His father, Ilya Nikolayevich, worked as an inspector of people's stores, and his mother, Maria Alexandrovna, was a home teacher.
Childhood and youth
In the period of biography 1879-1887. Vladimir Lenin studied at the Simbirsk gymnasium, which he graduated with honors. In 1887, his elder brother Alexander was executed for preparing an assassination attempt on the tsar.
This event shocked the entire Ulyanov family, because no one even suspected that Alexander was engaged in revolutionary activities.Special signs of V. I. Lenin
After the gymnasium, Lenin continued his studies at the University of Kazan at the law school. It was then that he began to be seriously interested in politics.
The execution of his brother greatly influenced his worldview, so it is not surprising that he quickly became interested in new political movements.
Having not studied at the university for half a year, Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin was expelled from him for participating in student unrest.
At the age of 21, he graduated externally from the law faculty of Petersburg University. After that, Lenin worked for some time as an assistant to a sworn attorney.
But this work did not bring him internal satisfaction, since he dreamed of great accomplishments.
The only official wife of Lenin was Nadezhda Krupskaya, who supported her husband in everything.
They met in Petersburg, during the underground revolutionary activities. The couple registered the relationship on July 22, 1898, when Vladimir Ulyanov was in exile.
Children in this marriage they did not have.
Lenin's political biography
After 2 years, the future leader of the Russian revolution went to Petersburg, where he became a member of the Marxist circle.Portrait of Vladimir Lenin
At the age of 25, he first went abroad.
There he managed to meet Georgy Plekhanov, who played an important role in Lenin's biography.
Plekhanov was at that time one of the most famous proponents of Marxism.
He immediately liked Lenin, who saw in him a hero and a patriot of his Fatherland.
Under the leadership of Plekhanov, the "Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class" was formed, which Lenin immediately joined.
Six months after that, Vladimir Ilyich was arrested and put in jail. In prison, he stayed for about a year, after which he was sent into exile in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
However, these events did not break the spirit of a young revolutionary who was convinced that his views were right.
Since during his time in exile he had more free time, he began to write works aimed at creating a revolutionary movement.
In 1899 he completed the work entitled "The Development of Capitalism in Russia". In it, Lenin analyzed the economic development of the empire, criticized representatives of liberal populism, and warned of the inevitable approach of the bourgeois revolution.
In parallel with this, he studied the works of the popular Marxist theorist Karl Kautsky. It was from there that Lenin gathered a lot of important information for his own political system.
At the end of the exile in 1900, Lenin decided to leave Russia. Over the next few years he lives in London, German Munich and Swiss Geneva.
In these cities, Vladimir Ilyich actively collaborated with his like-minded people, bringing up the idea of a revolution in Russia.
A year later, Ulyanov took the pseudonym "Lenin", under which he entered world history. He was still in close contact with Plekhanov, although by that time he himself already had great authority among like-minded people.
In December 1900, a group of Russian émigrés created the social-democratic newspaper Iskra. Most of the work on organizing the publication was carried out by Lenin.
He was responsible not only for the material published in the newspaper, but also for its distribution. Later, "Iskra" managed to illegally supply the Russian Empire.
In 1903, a split occurred in the party of the Social Democrats, as a result of which it was divided into "Mensheviks" and "Bolsheviks. Lenin became the leader of the" Bolsheviks ", who would later be at the helm of power.
In the period of the biography of 1905-1907. he secretly lived in St. Petersburg, only occasionally traveling abroad. After that, Vladimir Ilyich lived in various European states for 10 years.
At that time, he became the most famous and authoritative initiator of the Russian revolution.
In 1914, Lenin lived in Austria-Hungary. However, soon he was accused of being a Russian spy.
He was immediately arrested, but thanks to the intervention of influential Social Democrats, he was soon released.
The next place of residence of the leader of the proletariat was Switzerland, where he began to actively promote his ideas. In particular, Vladimir Ilyich wanted to turn the imperialist war into a civil war.
In the spring of 1917, Lenin spoke in St. Petersburg with his famous April Theses. In them, he detailed his vision of the beginning of the socialist revolution.
Lenin was not only a very competent person, but also a very talented orator. That is why, despite his burr, he literally riveted the attention of people at numerous rallies.
He managed to speak for hours in front of the public and answer the most uncomfortable questions.
Sensing self-reliance and support from the masses, Lenin began to ponder a plan for a coup d'état and the overthrow of the Provisional Government. Soon he will indeed succeed in implementing this plan.
In October 1917, while in the Smolny building, Lenin issued an order for an offensive. As a result, the Provisional Government was eliminated, and all power was in the hands of the Bolsheviks.
Soon, it was solemnly announced the formation of a new government - the Council of People's Commissars, whose leader was Lenin.
Some biographers say that the leader himself could not have imagined that the revolution would come so quickly.
After all, just a few months before the coup, Lenin, in his speeches, even though he spoke about the coming changes, however, pointed to dozens of years during which all this had to be realized.
Creation of the USSR
After the coup, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and his associates made public the decision, which referred to the withdrawal from the First World War and the transfer of private land to the peasants.
As a result, the Brest Peace Treaty was signed between Russia and Germany.
Moscow became the new capital of Soviet Russia, in which Vladimir Lenin continued his work.
Having firmly settled in the Kremlin, he began to fight any manifestation of dissent. In the summer of 1918, the leader ordered the suppression of the Left Social Revolutionaries by force, in which many people died.
At the height of the Civil War, the anarchists also opposed the Bolsheviks. However, the forces proved unequal, as a result of which the anarchists were defeated and repressed.
On August 30, 1918, an attempt was made on Lenin, after which he was seriously wounded.
This incident became known throughout the country, thanks to which the people began to respect Lenin even more.
Soon, the policy of war communism came into force. The All-Russian Emergency Commission (VChK) was formed, which fought against the counter-revolutionary elements.
The staff of this organization had great powers. As a result, the KGB almost completely eliminated the remnants of dissent.
Their methods of dealing with the "enemies of the people" were often accompanied by violent acts, manifested in various forms.
After the end of the Civil War in 1922, the revival of the national economy began. War communism was abolished, and the food tax came to replace the surplus.
At the same time, the NEP (new economic policy) was introduced in the country, according to which private trade was permitted.
At the same time, the policy of the NEP assumed the development of state-owned enterprises, electrification and cooperation.
Year of the USSR
The USSR was formed on December 30, 1922 by merging the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR and the Transcaucasian SFSR into one state with a single government, the capital in Moscow, the executive and judicial authorities, and legislative and legal systems.
It is unlikely that Lenin or his associates could suggest that they, in fact, created a world empire, which was destined to make colossal breakthroughs in science and technology, for the first time to go into outer space and win in the bloodiest war in human history.
The last years of Lenin's life
It is obvious that many political events that occurred in Lenin’s biography over the past few years could not but affect his health.
Thus, in the spring of 1922, he suffered 2 strokes, but at the same time retained common sense. Lenin’s last public address was held on November 20, 1922 at the plenum of the Moscow City Council.
On December 16, 1922, his state of health again deteriorated sharply, and on May 15, 1923, due to illness, he moved to the Gorki estate near Moscow.Ill Lenin in Gorki
But even in this state, Lenin, with the help of the stenographer, dictated letters and various notes. A year later, he suffered a third stroke, which made him completely disabled.
January 21, 1924 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin died at the age of 53 years.
Farewell to the leader of the world proletariat took place within 5 days. On the sixth day after death, Lenin's body was embalmed and placed in the Mausoleum.
The name of the leader called many cities and streets of the USSR. It was difficult to find such a city, wherever there would be a street or square named after Lenin, not to mention tens of thousands of monuments erected throughout Russia.
After Lenin, Joseph Stalin, who ruled for almost 30 years, took over the Soviet Union.Lenin and Stalin in Gorki, 1922
Interesting facts about Lenin
- An interesting fact is that during his life, Vladimir Lenin wrote about 30,000 documents. At the same time, he managed to speak at hundreds of rallies and lead a huge state.
- All his life Lenin was engaged in chess.
- Ilyich had a party nickname that was used by his comrades and himself: "The Old Man."
- Lenin's height was 164 cm.
- Russian inventor Lev Termen, who personally met Lenin, noted that he was very surprised by the bright red hair of the leader.
- According to the memoirs of many contemporaries, Lenin was a very cheerful and loving good joke.
- Lenin was an excellent student at school, and received a gold medal upon graduation.