Winston Churchill - British statesman and political figure, Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1940-1945 and 1951-1955; military, journalist, writer, honorary member of the British Academy. In 1953, Churchill was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Churchill is one of the most famous people of the 20th century. In his biography there are many interesting events, which we will discuss in this article.
So before you Winston Churchill biography.
Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was born on November 30, 1874 in the Blenheim Palace in Great Britain.
His father, Randolph Henry Spencer, was a lord and politician, and also served as Chancellor of the Treasury.
Mother, Lady Randolph, was the daughter of a wealthy businessman. From this it follows that Winston's childhood took place in very favorable conditions.
However, despite the domestic luxury, the child was deprived of the attention of parents. His father spent all his time at work, doing political affairs, and his mother was completely absorbed in secular life.
As a result, the actual education of Churchill fell on the shoulders of a nurse Elizabeth, who became his best friend. How can you not recall Pushkin with his verse nanny: "A friend of my harsh days ..."
When Churchill was 7 years old, he went to the prestigious school of St. George. In her teachers focused on education, rather than learning. Pupils were severely punished for the slightest violation of the established rules.
Since Winston Churchill was not assiduous as a child, he often violated discipline. As a result, the boy was repeatedly subjected to flogging.
When the nanny once saw traces of beatings on Winston's body, she immediately told his parents about it, as a result of which they transferred her son to another educational institution located in Brighton.Churchill in his youth
According to the testimony of teachers, Churchill had a good performance, however, and the most disgusting behavior among all students in the group.
When he was 12 years old, he suffered pneumonia, which caused serious complications. In this regard, he had to study at the less prestigious Harrow, and not at Eton College, where many men of their kind studied.
But the parents of the future politician considered that the health of the child is more important than family traditions.
At the new place of study, Winston Churchill did not want to get high marks, but rather the opposite - he taught only what was really interesting for him.26-year-old Churchill in 1900
This is very frustrating parents, so after 3 years they decided to transfer him to the "army class", in which the main focus was on studying military affairs. As it turns out later, this transition will play an important role in Churchill’s biography.
In this school, he was among those few students who managed to pass all exams perfectly. Thanks to this, he was able to enroll in an elite military school, where Winston also continued to study well. As a result, he graduated with the rank of junior lieutenant.
At the age of 21, Churchill was enrolled in the 4th Hussar Regiment of Royal Majesty.
After studying in it for several months, he realized that he was not at all interested in military career. He shared his experiences with his mother during correspondence.
Then the mother decided to help Winston change her occupation with her extensive connections. As a result, the young man was identified as a military journalist to Cuba, continuing to be registered in the hussar regiment.
Churchill's first articles received positive feedback from readers and even allowed him to earn a very substantial amount of money in the amount of 25 guineas.
It was in Cuba that Churchill acquired the habit of smoking cigars, which he could not refuse until the last days of his life.
In 1896, Churchill went on a business trip to India, and then to Egypt. An interesting fact is that, in addition to journalism, Winston has repeatedly participated in heavy battles, showing extraordinary courage and bravery.
In 1899, Churchill became seriously interested in politics. However, his first attempt to go to parliament was a fiasco. Because of this, he again decided to take up journalism. He went to Africa, where the Boer War was taking place at that time.
During this period, Churchill's biography was captured, but he soon managed to make a successful escape. After that, he became a real hero.
An interesting fact is that even after his escape, Churchill continued to participate in battles. Moreover, he became one of those who freed his compatriots from the prison in which he himself was during his captivity.
When the people of Great Britain learned about the exploits of the young soldier, he unhesitatingly supported his candidacy in the elections. The wheel of history turned, and in 1900, the 26-year-old Churchill was already a member of the House of Commons.
Becoming a politician, he harshly criticized the actions of Joseph Chamberlain, who was at that time the main ideologue of the state.
Churchill's political career quickly rushed up. During his biography, he changed many different leading posts. However, in the period when Winston Churchill was Minister of the Navy, he suffered the most shameful fiasco in his biography.
Through his fault in the First World War (1914-1918) killed 250 thousand Allied soldiers. This happened during the operation in the Dardanelles. After that, the minister resigned and volunteered for the front.
Churchill’s return to politics was due to the outbreak of World War II. He was entrusted with the position of First Lord of the Admiralty.
The British pinned great hopes on him, believing that only he could cope with the role of the leader of Great Britain at such a difficult time.Winston Churchill in 1941
It should be clarified that Winston Churchill was one of the few European politicians who criticized the ideas of Nazism and the German leader Adolf Hitler, long before the start of the military conflict.
Churchill was also one of the initiators of the anti-Hitler coalition, which included the Big Four (USSR, Great Britain, USA, China) and other countries.
An interesting fact is that Churchill also spoke negatively about communism - the dominant ideology of the Soviet Union. However, for the sake of victory over the Nazis, he was ready to go at all.
In the spring of 1942, Churchill, together with Franklin Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin, signed an important document called the Atlantic Charter. It described the structure of the world after the Allied victory.
In February 1945, the Yalta Conference was held. Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin took part in it.Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at the Yalta Conference, February 1945
The leaders of the Big Three made major decisions about the future division of the world between the winning countries.
During this period, the UK experienced an economic crisis, and the common people were in distress.
Withdrawal from politics
Despite the fact that Winston Churchill brought his nation a victory, in the next election he did not have the support of voters. For this reason, he resigned and retired from politics.
After this, Churchill's biography sharply turns, and he again begins to actively engage in writing, as well as being interested in simple household work.
Churchill himself lined up various buildings with bricks, bred pigs and planted trees. But he did not have time to enjoy this peace. Very soon another significant event happened in his biography.
Return to politics
In 1951, when Churchill was already 76 years old, he again took the post of British Prime Minister.
Now he sought to create nuclear weapons, wanting to return to Britain the former military power.
However, the years took their toll, and his state of health became worse. He was treated for heart failure, eczema, and developing deafness.
In February 1952, he probably survived another stroke and for several months lost the ability to speak coherently.
In June 1953, the attack was repeated, and he was paralyzed for several months on the left side.
Despite this, Churchill categorically refused to go on a well-deserved rest.
And only on April 5, 1955, he resigned from the post of Prime Minister of Great Britain for age and health.
The only love in Churchill's biography was Clementine Hozier, who was a very wise and educated woman. Along with her, Winston lived 57 happy years.
Interestingly, the Prime Minister and his wife discussed many government issues, and only after that did they take any decisions. By the way, Russian Tsar Peter the Great did the same thing in his time.
Clementine miraculously managed to find an approach to a quick-tempered and obstinate husband.Winston Churchill with his wife
Winston Churchill himself has repeatedly said that no other woman could bear his temper. In marriage, they had five children.
Spouse turned a blind eye to many bad habits of Winston. It is worth noting that Churchill almost never parted with a cigar and was a very passionate person.
For days and nights he could be in gambling houses, forgetting about everything. After his death, Hozier lived another 12 years, remaining faithful to her spouse.
Winston Churchill died on January 24, 1965 at the age of 90. His death was caused by a stroke.
The funeral ceremony of the most famous British premiere was led by Queen Elizabeth 2 and became the largest in the history of Great Britain.
Representatives of 112 states attended the funeral. The burial of Winston Churchill was broadcast by many television channels around the world, thanks to which hundreds of millions of people watched the mourning event.
At the request of the politician, he was buried in the cemetery in Blaydon, not far from his birthplace.