The Israeli state, compared with the empires of the time, was small and did not last long.
However, the ancestral homeland of the Israeli people became for the Jews a powerful spiritual and political symbol that helped them survive the centuries-old exile and dispersion throughout the world that followed the death of their kingdom.
If you like the story, then this article is for you. Before you brief history of the ancient kingdom of Israel.
The Bible describes how Moses led the Jews from Egyptian captivity to the "promised land" of Canaan - between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea.
There they lived in tribes until they were united by the first king Saul (reigned in 1020-1006 BC).
The next king of Israel (1006-995 BC. E.) Became David. He conquered the city of Jebus, gave him a new name, Jerusalem, and placed the ark of the Covenant there, making the city the political and religious center of the Israelites.
David’s son Solomon (965–928 BC) built a magnificent Temple in Jerusalem that was decorated with gold and bronze ornaments. In order to pay for the construction, the king inflated taxes, and his son Rehoam continued a tough financial policy.
Not wanting to put up with such a heavy burden, the northern tribes separated from the kingdom, and two states were formed - Israel in the north and Judea in the south.
Meanwhile, the warlike Assyrians, who lived in the valley of the Tigris River, began to seriously threaten other peoples of Mesopotamia. The Assyrians had a powerful army where innovations such as siege weapons and mail armor were used.
In 721 BC. er the Assyrians captured Israel, weakened by internal strife. Judea survived the defeat and remained as a vassal of the great Babylonian empire, the second of the great powers of Mesopotamia.
In 598 BC. er Judea rebelled against the Babylonian government, but the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II suppressed the rebellion. Ten years later, Nebuchadnezzar's troops occupied Jerusalem, destroyed the city and the Temple, and resettled thousands of Jews to Babylon.
Babylon was a magnificent city, but for the exiles, captivity turned out to be an ordeal. Therefore, they enthusiastically greeted the defeat of the Babylonian power by the Persians (539 BC. E.) Under the leadership of Cyrus the Great.
Having come to power in Babylon, Cyrus allowed the Jews to return to their homeland, which entered into his empire. Some returned home, but others remained in Babylon and Egypt, marking the beginning of the dispersal (diaspora) of the Jewish people, which continues to this day.
Temple of Solomon
According to the description in the Book of Kings, the Temple built by Solomon in Jerusalem to hold the ark of the Covenant consisted of three rooms: a porch, a sanctuary and the holy of holies, where the ark was located.First Temple (Temple of Solomon)
King David extended his power to a vast territory, but approx. 925 BC er it was divided into two states: Israel (in the north) with the capital Samaria and Judea (in the south) with the capital Jerusalem.
Ark of the Covenant
The Ark of the Covenant was a box of acacia wood and gold, decorated with two carvings of cherubs and equipped with a pair of long pole handles for carrying.
According to the Bible, God gave Moses precise instructions on how to make a vault for the tablets, where the Ten Commandments were written. When the Israelites went to war, the ark was always carried with the army; He served as the highest subject of religious worship, and also, according to legend, had the ability to kill people.Ark of the Covenant
King David moved the ark to Jerusalem, where he was subsequently kept in the Temple built by the son of David Solomon. After the Babylonians in 586 BC. er captured Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple, the ark disappeared.
Although the hero of the film "Indiana Jones: In Search of the Lost Ark" (1981), he finds the Ark of the Covenant, in fact, no one really knows anything about his whereabouts or existence.