Alexander Suvorov - Russian commander, founder of the national military theory, the national hero of Russia. Generalissimo, Field Marshal General, Field Marshal General of the Holy Roman Empire, the Great Marshal of the Piedmont troops, the gentleman of all the Russian orders of his time, who were awarded to men, as well as seven foreign ones.
From 1789 he wore the honorary title of Count Suvorov-Rymniki, and from 1799 - Prince of Italica Count Suvorov-Rymniki.
There are a lot of interesting facts in the biography of Suvorov, because this ingenious commander did not lose a single battle in his entire career, and he also repeatedly smashed the forces of the enemy that were considerably superior in number.
In all, Suvorov gave more than 60 major battles, and he was a supporter of swift offensive operations against the enemy, in connection with which he never used defensive methods of warfare.
Suvorov also went down in history as an extremely caring military leader who most valued the life and well-being of his soldiers. It most closely corresponded to Lermontov’s expression “Father to the soldiers.”
So before you brief biography of Suvorov.
Biography of Suvorov
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov was born on November 13 (24), 1730 in Moscow. At the same time, it must be said that biographers do not have one opinion regarding the exact date of birth of the commander.
Suvorov’s mother, Avdotya Feodosyevna, was the daughter of the Vice-President of the Land Registry Board. Father, Vasily Ivanovich, was the godson of Peter 1.
During the reign of Catherine 2, the father of the future commander served in the secret office, with the result that he received the rank of general. An interesting fact is that Suvorov Sr. was the creator of the first military dictionary in Russia.
Childhood and youth
From an early age in the biography of Suvorov, there was a particular craving for military strategies. He liked to be in the family library for a long time, reading the relevant books.Suvorov in childhood
The boy showed great interest in military affairs and in the future dreamed of becoming a soldier. And although the head of the family was not against it, he was skeptical about the aspirations of his son.
This was due to the fact that in childhood Sasha Suvorov was a very painful and physically weak child.
As a teenager, Alexander Suvorov began to harden and exercise regularly. Thanks to this, he was able to significantly improve his health.
Once, when the future Generalissimo was playing in the house with the soldiers, General Abraham Hannibal, who came to visit Suvorov, was closely watching him. He was very surprised at how competently little Alexander lined up his "troops" and led the battle with the enemy.
As a result, Hannibal advised Vasily Ivanovich to take seriously the inclinations of his son, and begin to develop in him an extraordinary talent as a strategist.
In 1742, an important event took place in the biography of Alexander Suvorov: he was enlisted as a musketeer in the Semenov regiment, where he served for almost 7 years. During this period, he continued to engage in self-education and intensively studied foreign languages.
It is reliably known about one interesting case that occurred with Suvorov during these years of biography. Briefly give it.
When Suvorov was on guard, Empress Elizaveta Petrovna approached him. Having found out who the father of the soldier was, she decided to donate a silver ruble to Suvorov.
What was the surprise of the Empress, when Alexander refused to take it. He explained this by the fact that the sentry has no right to receive anything from outsiders during the guard. Extremely surprised, Elizabeth praised the young warrior and put the ruble on the ground, ordering her to be picked up upon completion of the fasting.
Suvorov will keep this coin carefully until the end of his days.
During the biography of 1755-1758, Alexander Suvorov, being a lieutenant, served in the military board. After that he participated in the Seven Years War (1756-1763). In the rear unit, he managed to rise to prime minister.
In 1759, Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov participated in the first battle. An interesting fact is that, having led the dragoon squadron, he was able to turn the Germans to flight. Later Suvorov successfully fought at Kunersdorf. This battle was a turning point in the Seven Years War.
For the bravery shown, Suvorov was given the post of duty officer under General Fermor. In this capacity, he participated in a military operation to capture Berlin.
Soon, Alexander Suvorov was subordinate to General Magnus Johann von Berg. The talented officer was assigned to lead the dragoon, Cossack and hussar units, as he brilliantly coped with any tasks that he received from command.
In 1762, Alexander Vasilyevich was fired as a colonel. For her excellent service, the queen gave him her portrait. According to Suvorov, it was from this time that his career began.
In the mid-1760s, Suvorov commanded the Suzdal regiment. During this period of biography, he published the book "Regimental Institution", where he detailed the essence of his views on the formation of troops.
Of course, within the framework of a brief biography, it is rather difficult to describe Suvorov’s unique abilities, as well as to highlight all his brilliant maneuvers. However, we will tell briefly about the most important.
Alexander Suvorov acquired the greatest fame during the reign of Catherine the Great. In 1770, he was awarded the rank of major general. After a confident victory over the Turks, he was given the rank of lieutenant-general. At this time, his chief was the famous Field Marshal Peter Rumyantsev.
During the Russian-Turkish war, Alexander Vasilyevich’s talent was revealed to the full. In 1788, being already a general-in-chief, he received the first severe wound. For his bravery and victory over his opponent, he was awarded the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called.
After that, the commander received many more serious wounds, but in spite of everything he continued not only to command the troops, but also to take an active part in the battles.
Once again, Suvorov showed talent as a strategist and tactic, when he skillfully suppressed the riot of Yemelyan Pugachev. For this, Catherine the Great gave him 2,000 chervonets.
In 1789, in the battle of Rymnik, the Russian-Austrian army, numbering 25,000 men, won a brilliant victory over the Turkish army, which is 4 times more than the Russian army. This extraordinary victory was due solely to the leadership tactics of Suvorov.
In 1790, a battle took place in the biography of Suvorov, which went down in history thanks to its absolutely unique tactics and strategy. It was a battle to capture the Turkish fortress Ishmael.
An interesting fact is that until that moment the fortress was considered impregnable. Despite this, Alexander Suvorov was able to take Ishmael by storm. To this end, he prepared the troops for the assault for eight days, creating a training camp — a moat and a ravine-like rampart.
Finally, he sent an ultimatum to the commandant of the fortress Mehmet Pasha demanding surrender. After the commandant, who knew about the impregnability of the fortress, refused, on December 11 (22), 1790, Russian troops under the command of Suvorov, stormed Ismail.
It seems incredible, but the Russian losses amounted to only 4,000 soldiers, while the Turks lost 26,000 soldiers.
In 1796 Catherine the Great died, and Paul I was on the throne - a fanatical supporter of the Prussian military system of Frederick the Great, according to which he began to reform the Russian army.
Naturally, this could not be liked by the Russian commander, who proved in practice that his military system was much more effective.
In short, the relationship between the new emperor and Suvorov did not exist. On February 6, 1797, Suvorov was dismissed without the right to wear a uniform, and at the end of March he arrived at his family estate.
However, when the political and military situation began to heat up in Europe, the invincible Alexander Suvorov was again remembered. The Austrian and British leadership appealed to the Russian emperor with a request to appoint Suvorov to command the Allied forces.
On February 6, 1799, Suvorov received a letter from the emperor:
"Count Alexander Vasilyevich! Now is not the time for us to settle up. God will forgive the guilty. The Roman emperor demands you to be the chief of his army and gives you the fate of Austria and Italy ..."
Italian campaign of Suvorov
Speaking about the biography of Suvorov briefly, yet you can not do without historical background. In 1798, Russia joined the 2nd anti-French coalition (Great Britain, Austria, Turkey, the Kingdom of Neapolitan).
A united Russian-Austrian army was created, headed by the brilliant Russian commander Alexander Suvorov. Literally immediately began the famous campaign in northern Italy, captured by French troops.
The Italian campaign was a smashing success and still delights contemporaries. Suvorov won one battle after another, and at the cost of relatively small losses managed to destroy half of the enemy army.
In the famous battle of Novi, the French suffered huge human and combat losses. In the Italian campaign, this victory played a decisive role.Meeting Suvorov in Milan in April 1799
Describing the attitude of contemporaries to the victories of Suvorov in the Italian campaign, the historian and author of the most fundamental research on the biography of Suvorov Petrushevsky gives the following facts:
Not only Russia and Italy honored the Russian commander and marveled at his name; in England, he also became the first celebrity of the era, the beloved hero ... In Russia, the glory of Suvorov was brought to a climax by a patriotic feeling; he was the pride of his fatherland; the newspapers of that time were filled with the words: "it is pleasant to be Russian at such a glorious time for Russia.
After the liberation of Northern Italy, Suvorov proposed to launch an offensive against France. However, the Allies, fearing the growing influence of Russia, ordered him, leaving the Austrian troops in Italy, to head for Switzerland at the head of the Russian troops, to join the Rimsky-Korsakov corps operating there and from there go to France.
Swiss campaign Suvorov
August 31 (September 11), 1799 began the heroic Swiss campaign of Suvorov, which became the great page of Russian history.
In this campaign, the loss of the Russian army, which came out of the encirclement without food and ammunition and smashed all the troops in its path, amounted to about 5,000 people (up to 1/4 of the army), many of whom crashed during the transitions.
However, the losses of the French troops, which had an overwhelming superiority in numbers, exceeded the losses of the Russian troops by 3-4 times. 2778 French soldiers and officers were captured, half of which Suvorov managed to feed and remove from the Alps as evidence of a great feat.
The transition of 68-year-old Alexander Suvorov through the Alps became unprecedented in the history of military affairs. No one, either before or after Suvorov, committed it in winter. Russian troops valiantly fulfilled their allied obligations to the Austrians, which cannot be said about the latter.
After the completion of the Swiss campaign, Pavel I decided to mint a special medal, on which he wanted to reflect the "contribution" of the Austrians (who only interfered with the common cause). Suvorov, to whom the emperor asked to propose options for the text of the inscription on the medals, gave this advice: make the medal the same for both Russians and Austrians, but at the same time knock out the "Russian" version "God with us", and on "Austrian" - "God with you".
For this unprecedented hike and heroism, Suvorov on October 28 (November 8), 1799, was awarded the highest military rank - Generalissimo of the Russian land and sea forces, becoming the fourth in Russia who was awarded this title.
Due to the unique experience and natural genius of the commander, Suvorov was able to develop his own strategy and tactics of warfare.
From his pen came a well-known manual "Science to win", which became a reference book not only for military commanders, but also for ordinary soldiers.
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov is the owner of all the highest military awards of his time. An interesting fact is that during his lifetime a monument was erected to him.
Suvorov schools appeared in Russia, where cadets were trained in military science. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) the Order of Suvorov appeared. They were awarded the Soviet commanders who have achieved the greatest success in the management of the army.
In the personal life of Suvorov was not so rosy, as in a professional career. Since he devoted all his youth to military affairs, he had no family until 40 years old.Varvara Ivanovna, wife of Alexander Suvorov
In this regard, the father introduced his son to a simple and poorly educated girl Barbara Prozorovskaya, who was supposed to make the commander's family happiness.
In 1774, young people entered into marriage. They had a daughter, Natalia, and a son, Arkady. However, this family union was unsuccessful. During one of the military campaigns, Alexander Vasilyevich was informed about his wife’s treason.
In this regard, he wanted to divorce his wife, but refused this idea because of the pressure of Barbara's relatives and the request of the empress herself.
However, in 1784, the field marshal still broke off any relationship with Prozorovskaya. As a result, the daughter was given up for education at the Smolny Institute, and the son Arkady, born in the same year, remained to live with his mother.
An interesting fact is that Alexander Vasilyevich recognized Arkady only 12 years after his birth. When the son of Suvorov turned 26 years old, he drowned in the river Rymnik.
After the completion of the Swiss campaign, Alexander Suvorov returned home. During this period of biography, he lost a lot of strength and began to seriously hurt, so he decided to go to his estate in Kobrin.
However, thanks to the efforts of the imperial physician sent to Suvorov on the instructions of Paul I, Suvorov’s health improved.
In this regard, Alexander Vasilyevich went to St. Petersburg, where he was prepared for a warm welcome. But suddenly his state of health began to deteriorate sharply, until it reached a critical point.
Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov died on May 6 (18), 1800, at the age of 69 years. Buried in the lower Annunciation Church of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.
On it we will finish short biography of Suvorov. If you want to know more about the personality of Suvorov and his contribution to military science, read this article.