Alexander of Macedon is the king of Macedonia, one of the greatest military leaders in history and the founder of a world empire that disintegrated after his death.
During its short life, Macedonian achieved incredible results, having conquered vast territories and received world fame. Thanks to his military campaigns, the popularization of Greek culture in the East began, and the king himself became known in Western historiography as Alexander the Great.
In his biography a lot of mysterious things that are hardly ever clear up. However, we will try to tell all the most interesting facts from his life.
By the way, pay attention to interesting stories about Alexander Makendosky and Bucephalus - his famous horse.
So before you a brief biography of Alexander of Macedon.
Biography of Alexander of Macedon
Alexander of Macedon (Alexander III the Great) was allegedly born on July 20/23 or on October 6/10, 356 BC. e. in the Macedonian capital Pella. He came from the famous Argead family, which, according to Greek mythology, took its origin from Hercules himself.
Alexander's father, Philip 2, was king of Macedonia, and his mother Olympiad was the daughter of an epirus ruler. The prince had a half-brother after his father - Philip 3, who suffered from dementia.
Childhood and youth
Alexander from an early age admired his father, who often won victories over his opponents and was an excellent diplomat.
It is worth noting that in childhood the mother had a strong influence on the boy. An interesting fact is that she turned her son against his father.
The story of Alexander of Macedon
Alexander of Macedon was trained in Miez with his relatives. Leonid, whom the future king considered his adoptive father, taught him military practice and way of life. To the young man, he was very strict and demanding, but fair.Alexander the Great on a fragment of an ancient Roman mosaic from Pompeii
Alexander also had a second educator named Lysmakh, who taught him philosophy, gymnastics, music, and other sciences.
Having reached the age of 13, the great ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle became the new teacher of the teenager. He did his best to give his student as much knowledge as possible.
Most of all, Aristotle tried to instill in Alexander the Great the love of politics, philosophy and ethics, since these disciplines, in his opinion, were extremely necessary for the future king. They often spoke on various topics, raising important questions and exchanging their own views on life.
During this period of biography, Alexander the Great was distinguished by stubbornness and purposefulness. At the same time, he showed absolute indifference to physical benefits, for a long time without feeling feelings towards women and restricting himself in food. In many ways, it was a merit of Leonid, who from an early age brought up the boy in the spirit of the Spartans.
For the first time, Alexander the Great was on the battlefield at the age of 16. When Philip 2 went to war with Byzantium, unrest arose in his homeland, the initiators of which were the Thracians. The young commander brilliantly suppressed the uprising with the remaining soldiers, and in the place of the Thracian settlements formed the city of Alexandropol.
Later, Alexander the Great also participated in the battles, showing the courage and talent of a wise commander. When in 336 BC. e. his father Philip was killed, Alexander became the new king of Macedonia.
From that time began the history of the legendary ruler and commander.
The campaigns of Alexander the Great
Once in power, Alexander killed all the enemies of his father involved in his death. Then he abolished taxes and took up the restoration of power in Macedonia and Greece. By uniting the whole of Hellas, the king organized a campaign against Persia, which Philip so long dreamed of.Alexander: "Ask me what you want." Diogenes: “Don't block the sun!”
In the battle with the Persians, Alexander the Great fully revealed his talent as a commander. In a battle by the river Granik, he defeated the enemy, as a result of which he managed to capture almost all of Asia Minor.
This victory brought him worldwide fame and recognition.
Soon Alexander conquered Syria, Palestine, Kariya, Phenicia and other states. Then he went to war against Egypt, where he was met as a national hero. There he founded the city of Alexandria in his honor.
In general, I must say that the biography of Alexander the Great is almost entirely composed of military campaigns.Alexander enters Babylon
Returning to Persia, he captured Susa, Persepolis and Babylon, which later became the capital of the united state. In 329 BC. e. The king of Persia, Darius, was killed by his fellow soldiers.
Alexander the Great skillfully took advantage of this situation and again showed himself to be a wise tactician and strategist. He stated that it was not the invaders who were to blame for the collapse of the Persian Empire, but the murderers of Darius. Immediately after this, he announced that he was ready to avenge Darius.
Becoming the ruler of Asia, Alexander for 2 years captured Sogdean and Bactria. An interesting fact is that when conquering new cities, he often renamed them in his honor.
The conquests of Alexander of Macedon
In 326 BC e. Alexander the Great organized a military campaign in India. Initially, he was able to capture some of the territory, but after crossing the Indus River, his soldiers refused to continue the offensive.One of the most authentic images of Alexander (Louvre Museum)
Soldiers are seriously tired of endless battles, tropical storms, snakes and unusual food. In addition, they were afraid of a large Indian army and its elephants. Thus, the king had to return home.
A characteristic feature of Alexander the Great was that when he invaded this or that land, he never imposed his beliefs and customs on people.
On the contrary, the commander willingly accepted the religious views and traditions of other nations.
In addition, an interesting fact about the biography of Alexander the Great is that he left the conquered kings in their places, thereby avoiding unnecessary unrest in the occupied territories.
Future Roman emperors will do likewise.
It is believed that Alexander the Great had 360 concubines, of whom Campapus and Barsina, who gave birth to his son Hercules, are distinguished. He also had a relationship with the leader of the Amazons Falestrisa and the Indian princess Cleophis.
In general, in the biography of Alexander the Great there were 3 wives. The first was the daughter of a local grandee Roxana. An interesting fact is that the king married her when the girl was barely 14 years old. In this marriage, their son Alexander was born.
After that, Alexander the Great married the daughters of King Darius - Statir and the king of Artaxerxes 3 - Parisatide. It is fair to say that both marriages were concluded only for political reasons. Although this did not prevent Roxane immediately after the death of her spouse to kill Statira on the basis of jealousy.
Interestingly, Alexander of Macedonian respected the weaker sex and even believed that women are in fact equal to men. This position was very unusual for that time.
In the winter of 323 BC. e. Alexander of Macedon began to prepare for the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula and the march on Carthage. But a few days before the start of the military campaign, he fell seriously ill.The trust of Alexander the Great to the doctor Philip
Many historians believe that the commander was ill with malaria, but there are versions in favor of poisoning the king.
After 10 days of severe fever, June 10 or 13, 323 BC Alexander of Macedon died at the age of 32. It should be noted that the great commander did not leave behind any orders as to who would take his throne. Perhaps that is why immediately after his death the gigantic empire of Alexander the Great fell apart.