Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky - Soviet poet, prose writer, publicist, translator, journalist and literary critic. He is the most published author of children's literature in Russia (the circulation in 2017 exceeds 2 million. Copies).
For his creative biography, he wrote many well-known works, including "Moidodyr", "Aibolit" and "Fedorino Woe."
In the biography of Chukovsky, many interesting facts and unusual events, which we will tell you right now.
So, before you is a brief biography of Chukovsky.
Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky (real name is Nikolai Korneychukov) was born on March 19, 1882 in St. Petersburg. His mother, Ekaterina Osipovna, worked as a servant in the house of the famous doctor Solomon Levinson.
Soon, she entered into an intimate relationship with his son Emmanuel, with the result that she gave birth to a girl, Mary, and 3 years later, a boy, Nicholas.
Together this couple lived for 7 years. In the eyes of the public, the relationship between a peasant girl and a man from the upper class was considered unacceptable.
Soon, Emmanuel's father put a daughter-in-law with two children in his arms on the street, not wanting anything to do with her. As a result, Catherine was forced to go to relatives in Odessa, because she did not have the opportunity to rent an apartment and provide the children.
Childhood and youth
The early period of Korney Chukovsky’s biography took place in an atmosphere of extreme poverty. Mother had to take on any work to feed the children, but there was still not enough money.Young Korney Chukovsky
At the age of 5, the boy began to go to kindergarten, after which he became a student of the local gymnasium. According to the writer himself, he was expelled from the 5th grade due to low origin.
In adolescence, Chukovsky was engaged in various kinds of part-time work in order to somehow improve the material situation of the family. He carried newspapers, cleaned the roofs and put up posters.
During this period, the biography of the young man seriously carried away reading. In particular, he loved the works of Alexander Dumas and Edgar Allan Poe.
An interesting fact is that Korney Chukovsky had a phenomenal memory. Thanks to this, he was able to learn English so well that he was able to translate texts on the go without the slightest hesitation.
The first work in the biography of Chukovsky was a philosophical opus, written in 1901. Subsequently, it was published in the newspaper "Odessa News". For his work, the young man received 7 rubles, which he had enough to buy decent clothes.
After 2 years of cooperation with the "Odessa News", a promising journalist was sent on a business trip to London. During the year he studied foreign literature and worked with various documents.Unique photo of V. V. Mayakovsky with Boris and Korney Chukovsky
During this period, the biography of Chukovsky published about 90 works. Later he will translate into Russian the works of such writers as Mark Twain, Oscar Wilde and Rudyard Kipling.
In 1905, Korney Chukovsky settled in St. Petersburg, where he found work as a journalist in the newspaper "Theatrical Russia". Each issue published his reviews of the performances he reviewed and the books he read.
Soon Chukovsky began publishing a satirical magazine "Signal". However, after 4 numbers he was arrested for "insulting the majesty" - a disrespectful statement towards the emperor and his actions. Only through the efforts of a lawyer Gruzenberg writer managed to be released from prison.
In 1906, Korney Chukovsky began living at his dacha in Kuokkala. During this period of biography, he managed to communicate with Ilya Repin, Vladimir Mayakovsky and Alexei Tolstoy. Later he will describe in his memoirs the impressions received from communicating with these people.
At the same time Chukovsky began to lead a humorous almanac "Chukokkala", which will be published only in 1979. It is an interesting fact that it contained autographs of famous poets, writers, musicians and artists. They included Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Boris Pasternak, Osip Mandelstam, Ivan Bunin, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Arthur Conan Doyle and many others.
In 1917, Korney Chukovsky became the head of the children's department of the Parus publishing house. In his biography, a new creative project appeared - the almanac "The Firebird".
He managed to easily write interesting stories for children, which even adults read. At that time, he wrote the famous "Chicken" and "Doctor."Osip Mandelstam, Korney Chukovsky, Benedict Livshits and Yuri Annenkov, farewell to the front, 1914
At this time, his sick son Nikolai suffered from frequent bouts of illness. To alleviate his suffering, Chukovsky on the move came up with various tales for him. The child listened with such interest to the father’s story that he forgot about his illness and did not utter a single groan.
It was in this way that the famous work "Crocodile" was born, published on the eve of the October Revolution of 1917.
After the Bolsheviks came to power, Korney Chukovsky collaborated with various publishing houses and visited many cities, giving lectures.
In the 20s and 30s, the writer wrote many fairy tales that gained immense popularity in society. These include Tarakanshche, Moydodyr, Mucha-tsokotuha, Barmalei, Fedorino Woe, Aibolit and many others.
An interesting fact is that before sending his works to print, Korney carefully checked the quality of the design of this or that book. He paid special attention to illustrations for fairy tales or children's verses.
It seemed that the biography of the writer Chukovsky is quite successful. This lasted until the moment when his works were not subjected to harsh criticism from Nadezhda Krupskaya.
The widow of Vladimir Lenin harshly criticized the works of Chukovsky, calling them "bourgeois mist." In addition, she accused the writer of allegedly imposing false ideals on children that run counter to the party line.
After that, the Soviet censors began to see "hidden meaning" in almost every fairy tale or verse of the poet. For example, in the main character "Tarakanschi" they saw the caricature of Stalin.
Serious pressure from the authorities deprived Chukovsky of any strength. Sometimes he himself began to believe that his work was not interesting to anyone. In 1929, he publicly rejected his old works, promising to work in a different genre.Alexander Blok and Korney Chukovsky
At the height of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), the tales of “The Adventures of Bibigon” and “Overcome Barmalei” came out from the pen of Korney Chukovsky. The first of them was personally criticized by Stalin, and the second was called “ideologically harmful work” by the censors.
In this regard, the writer experienced not the best years in his biography and was forced to return to journalism.
In 1962, Chukovsky published the book “Live as Life”, consisting of 7 chapters and a small “dictionary”. In it, he described the "disease", which was subjected to the Russian language. Then he published the complete works of Nikolai Nekrasov, whose work he was seriously interested in.Korney Chukovsky
During this period, Korney Chukovsky’s biography read Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s book, One Day by Ivan Denisovich, later becoming its first censor.
Together with Tvardovsky, he managed to convince Nikita Khrushchev to publish this work. It is worth noting that when harassment began on Solzhenitsyn from the authorities, Korney Ivanovich hid him at his dacha in Peredelkino.
In 1964, Chukovsky, along with Marshak, was not afraid to speak out in defense of the poet Joseph Brodsky, who was persecuted both by the authorities and by his colleagues in the workshop.
During the life of Kornei Chukovsky, dozens of cartoons were shot from his works, which do not lose their popularity today.
In the biography of Chukovsky there was only one woman. With Maria Borisovna, he met in his youth. It is worth noting that the girl's parents did not want to see their son-in-law Korney, since he belonged to the lower class.
However, Maria loved the 18-year-old boy so much that she was ready to run with him to the Caucasus. Despite all the obstacles, young people were able to legitimize their relationship in 1903.Korney Chukovsky with his wife and son
At the marriage ceremony, Kornei and Maria were attended by many journalists who gave flowers to the newlyweds. However, instead of flowers, the couple needed money. During the wedding fun, the resourceful groom removed the headdress and began to “beg for alms” from the guests.
After the wedding, Chukovsky and his wife went to England. When it turned out that the young wife had become pregnant, the writer sent her home. In 1904, the firstborn Nikolai was born in their family.Family Korney Chukovsky
Upon arrival in Russia, Korney Chukovsky turned out to be one of the main critics of St. Petersburg. Thanks to the knowledge gained in England, an unknown journalist in one instant became a welcome guest in any literary society.
Later, two more girls were born in the Chukovsky family - Lydia and Maria, and the boy Boris. An interesting fact is that it was Maria who became the prototype of many of the writer's heroes. She died of tuberculosis in the eleventh year of life.
Chukovsky was always a hospitable and kind person. He arranged meetings with various famous people, and also often invited local children to his home.Korney Chukovsky reads
3 years before his death, he signed a letter to 25 cultural and scientific figures to Leonid Brezhnev against the rehabilitation of Stalin.
Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky died October 28, 1969 at the age of 87 years. The cause of his death was hepatitis. At the country house in Peredelkino, where the writer lived most of his life, his museum now operates.